Teaching Emergent Bilingual Students: Flexible Approaches in an Era of New Standards
C. Patrick Proctor EdD, Alison Boardman PhD, Elfrieda H. Hiebert PhD

Recent educational reform initiatives such as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) largely fail to address the needs–or tap into the unique resources–of students who are developing literacy skills in both English and a home language. This book discusses ways to meet the challenges that current standards pose for teaching emergent bilingual students in grades K-8. Leading experts describe effective, standards-aligned instructional approaches and programs expressly developed to promote bilingual learners’ academic vocabulary, comprehension, speaking, writing, and content learning. Innovative policy recommendations and professional development approaches are also presented.

Biliteracy from the Start
Kathy Escamilla, Susan Hopewell, Sandra Butvilofsky, Wendy Sparrow, Lucinda Soltero-Gonzalez, Olivia Ruiz-Figueroa, Manuel Escamilla

Biliteracy from the Start: Literacy Squared in Action shows bilingual education teachers, administrators, and leadership teams how to plan, implement, monitor, and strengthen biliteracy instruction that builds on students linguistic resources in two languages, beginning in kindergarten.

Escamilla and her team present a holistic biliteracy framework that is at the heart of their action-oriented Literacy Squared school-based project. Teachers learn to develop holistic biliteracy units of instruction, lesson plans, and assessments that place Spanish and English side by side.

Teaching Reading to English Language Learners: Differentiated Literacies
Socorro G. Herrera, Della R. Perez, Kathy Escamilla

A practical, research-based guide, Teaching Reading to English Language Learners gives ESL teachers and grade-level teachers the information and strategies they need to support second language literacy development with their Culturally Linguistically Diverse (CLD) learners, in addition to the program the school already has in place. Throughout, the authors guide teachers to modify literacy instruction to address both the assets and the needs of their English learners. Included are strategies for converting research into practical application; illustrative student samples from multiple grade levels and language backgrounds; teacher insights; a look at the sociocultural, academic, cognitive, and linguistic dimensions of the CLD student biography; and a number of helpful pedagogical aids.


Instrumento de observacion de los logros de la lecto-escritura inicial: Spanish Reconstruction of An Observation Survey A Bilingual Text
Ana Maria Andrade, Amelia G. M. Basurto, Marie Clay, Olivia A. Ruiz, Kathy Escamilla

The power of systematic observation to inform teachers and improve instruction is well documented. However, until now, this work has only supported English language literacy, even though Spanish speaking students constitute the fastest growing group in American schools.

Since the work was developed for use in the United States, explanations of theoretical concepts, procedures, research results, and directions to teachers are all presented in English. The observation tasks, examples of student responses, and directions for their administration appear in Spanish. Response and recording sheets are in both English and Spanish.

Collectively, this book expands the knowledge base of bilingual teachers in a way that enables them to be better observers of children’s literacy behaviors and, in the process, improve instruction. Efforts like this are imperative if we are to realize the academic potential of Spanish speaking students in our country.

Why Do English Learners Struggle With Reading?
John J. Hoover, Leonard M. Baca, Janette K. Klingner

Developed for general and special education teachers and service providers, this trusted resource offers a variety of research-based best practices, and includes

• Nine common misconceptions that can lead to wrongful placement of students in special education
• Theories of second language acquisition
• Select evidence-based methods for teaching reading to students learning English
• Issues to consider and techniques to use when assessing students for special education and making data-based decisions
• Role of cultural influences in reading instruction
• Expanded coverage of multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS)
• Readers will find helpful vignettes, checklists, and suggestions that support outstanding teaching practices and appropriate, effective use of assessment and referrals.

Linking Assessment to Instruction in Multi-Tiered Models: A Teacher’s Guide to Selecting, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics Interventions
John J. Hoover

Organized in two parts, it explores the multi-tiered instructional model found within the RTI framework and how to best implement it in the classroom setting. Beyond a theoretical perspective, it shows teachers which evidence-based interventions should be attempted based on specific achievement data and related progress scores. It includes reading, writing, and mathematics interventions that can be used for core Tier 1 instruction, supplemental Tier 2 supports and intensive Tier 3 interventions. Throughout the book, its emphasis is on using assessment data to make important instructional decisions that meet learner needs.

Differentiating Learning Differences from Disabilities: Meeting Diverse Needs through Multi-Tiered Response to Intervention
John J. Hoover

This book helps educators of culturally and linguistically diverse learners gain a deeper understanding of the interrelated educational factors of culture diversity, language differences and disability characteristics in order to avoid misidentifying learning differences as learning or behavior disorders. These concepts are typically addressed individually in different university courses and inservice trainings, yet an integrated understanding of behaviors associated with culture diversity, language differences and disabilities is necessary to more clearly discern learning differences from disabilities. Understanding one area and not the other (e.g., knowing about culture or linguistic diversity but not about special education and vice versa) provides educators with less than a complete picture of diverse needs, often leading to the erroneous misinterpretation of learning or behavior disorders.

Methods for Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners
John J. Hoover, Janette K. Klingner, Leonard M. Baca, James R. Patton

This book is written for any educator directly or indirectly involved in the K-12 education of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners. It is appropriate for use with both practicing as well as pre-service educators in college or university courses that are designed to teach methods for assessing and educating culturally and linguistically diverse learners with disabilities.

Core ESL Instructional Practices (CEIP):  Research-based Instructional Guide for Teaching English Learners

CEIP is a research-based guide grounded in literature that describes best/effective practices in the teaching of English Learners in K-5 general education classrooms.  CEIP was developed through input from over 100 K-5 teachers from schools in urban, suburban, and rural Colorado.  CEIP is validated for teacher self-assessment of their practices within general education classes to inform classroom instruction, professional development, and instructional coaching in the education of English learners.

Download the CEIP Teacher Self-Assessment Guide.

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR):

CSR is a set of research-based instructional strategies to improve reading comprehension and content learning. With CSR students work together in collaborative groups to read text and apply comprehension strategies to better understand science, social studies and language arts content. CSR includes methods for monitoring comprehension, engaging in student-led discussions, reviewing and synthesizing information, asking and answering questions, and taking steps to improve understanding.

For more information about Collaborative Strategic Reading, including free CSR resources and the option to earn PD credit hours, see:

U.S. Department of Education English Learner (ELL) Took Kit for SEAs & LEAs

The tool kit is designed to help state and local education agencies (SEAs and LEAs) in meeting their legal obligations to ELs and in providing all ELs with the support needed to attain English language proficiency while meeting college- and career-readiness standards. The EL Tool Kit is intended primarily for state, district, school administrators, and teachers, but may also inform other stakeholders concerned with the education of ELs.

Download the U.S. Department of EEL Took Kit